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MBA英语阅读:Fat is a fiscal-policy issue
  • 来源:MBA加油站
  • 时间:2017-11-02 18:25:34
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1

In rich countries, people's diets are getting worse and they are getting fatter. Hence the increasing popularity of a “fat tax”, to make unhealthy food cost more. Since Hungary led the charge in 2011 with a “chip tax” on fatty and sugary foods, other countries have followed. Britain is to join a long list next year.

译:在发达国家,人们的饮食越来越差,人也越来越胖。因此,“肥胖税”越来越受欢迎,从而使得不健康食品价格上涨。自从匈牙利在2011年率先对高脂肪和高糖食品征收“炸薯条税”之后,其他国家也纷纷效仿。下一年英国也要加入这些国家之列。

2

Since the poor both spend a higher proportion of their income on food and tend to eat less healthily, they are the main targets of such taxes. In France, for instance, adult obesity is seen in over 20% of households with monthly incomes under €1,500 ($1,765) compared with less than 10% of those who earn over €3,000.

proportion  n. 比例; 部分; 正确的比例,均衡

obesity    n. (肥胖)症

译:由于穷人在食品上的支出占收入的比例更高,而且往往吃得不太健康,所以穷人是这类税收的主要目标。例如在法国,在月收入低于1500欧元(折合1765美元)的家庭中,超过20%有成年人肥胖症,相比之下,在月收入高于3000欧元的家庭中,低于10%的家庭中有成年人肥胖症。

3

Punishing consumers, however, is politically painful. So “thin subsidies” have been gaining ground. But data on the impact of such policies are scarce. A recent study on the distributional impacts of fat taxes and thin subsidies from researchers at the universities of Oklahoma and Grenoble suggests policymakers should be wary.

subsidy   n. 津贴,补贴,补助金

gain ground 占领阵地;变得更受欢迎;取得进展;得到肯定

scarce adj. 不足的,缺乏的,稀少的

wary  adj. 小心翼翼的,谨慎的

译:然而,(肥胖税)惩罚消费者在政治上是痛苦的。所以“瘦身补贴”越来越为人们所接受。但是关于这些政策影响的数据少之又少。美国俄克拉荷马州大学和法国格勒诺布尔大学的研究人员最近对肥胖税和瘦身补贴的分布影响进行了一项研究,研究结果表明政策制定者们应该小心谨慎。

4

The study found that the taxes and subsidies actually widened health and fiscal inequalities. Fat taxes meant the women on lower incomes paid disproportionately more for food—their habits changed less. They preferred to buy food they liked rather than what made nutritional sense. Taxing the food they eat most made the poor poorer.

译:研究发现,税收和补贴实际上扩大了健康和财政的不平等。肥胖税意味着收入较低的女性为食物支付的比例更高,她们的饮食习惯不易改变。她们更倾向于购买自己喜欢的食品,而不是更有营养的食品。对她们经常吃的食品征税会使得穷人更穷。

5

Subsidies encouraged all income groups to buy more fruit and vegetables. But those on higher incomes proved more responsive and so benefited most. Interestingly, richer folk were also more likely to buy the subsidised healthy food and then spend the savings they had accrued on yet more healthy food.

accrue  v.(使)〔钱〕逐渐增加,积累

译:该研究还发现,补贴能促使各收入水平的人们去买更多的水果和蔬菜,但是那些收入更高的人反应更积极,因此受益最大。有意思的是,富有的人也更有可能购买有补贴的健康食品然后把他们积累的积蓄花在更健康的食物上。

6

But poorer women, if they responded to lower prices, often used the money saved to buy unhealthy items or something else entirely. Once the nutritional price policies were applied, the average share of budget spent on healthy food actually increased for the better-off.

better-off  adj. 生活较优裕的,经济状况较好的

译:而那些较贫穷的女性,如果她们对较低的价格作出反应,她们通常会用省下来的钱买不健康的食品或其他东西。一旦“营养价格”政策付诸实践,政府预算中花在健康食品的平均份额实际上是为较富裕人群增加的。

7

The reverse was true for the poor. The long-term benefits of a healthier diet are harder to grasp than the immediate boost of a tasty treat. Taxes and subsidies do not change that. Other strategies are needed as well—notably education.

boost   v. 促进,推动   n. 激励,增长,提高

notable adj. 值得注意的,显著的,显要的

译:对于穷人来说,情况正好相反。健康饮食的长期益处不如美味食物直接刺激来得实在。收税和补贴都改变不了以上事实。因此,其它策略也不可缺少,尤其是教育。

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